How to Perform Solderability Tests According to J-STD-002E Standard
J- STD- 002E: What Is It and How to Download It for Free?
If you are involved in the design, manufacture, assembly, or testing of electronic components, you may have heard of J- STD- 002E. But what is it exactly and why is it important? And how can you download it for free from reliable sources?
In this article, we will answer these questions and more. We will explain what J- STD- 002E is, what are its main features and benefits, and how to download it for free from reliable sources. We will also provide a table that compares the test methods, parameters, and criteria of J- STD What is J-STD-002E and why is it important?
J-STD-002E is a joint standard developed by the IPC and the JEDEC Solid State Technology Association. It was published in December 2014 and it superseded the previous version, J-STD-002D, which was published in 2007.
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J-STD-002E covers the test methods and criteria for assessing the solderability of electronic components. Solderability is the ability of a component to form a satisfactory solder joint with a specified solder alloy under specified conditions. Solderability is important because it affects the quality and reliability of electronic assemblies, especially in high-density and high-performance applications.
J-STD-002E relates to other standards and specifications that deal with solderability, such as J-STD-003, JESD22-B102, and IEC 60068-2-69. However, J-STD-002E is the most widely used and recognized standard for solderability testing of electronic components.
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Definition and scope of J-STD-002E
J-STD-002E defines solderability as "the ability of a metal to be wetted by molten solder". Wetting is the formation of a continuous and uniform liquid film on a solid surface. Wetting is influenced by factors such as surface cleanliness, oxidation, metallization, solder composition, flux type, temperature, time, and atmosphere.
J-STD-002E applies to various types of electronic components, such as leaded and leadless components, surface mount devices (SMDs), ball grid arrays (BGAs), chip scale packages (CSPs), and flip chips. It also applies to different types of solder alloys, such as lead-based (Pb) and lead-free (Pb-free) solders.
J-STD-002E was developed by a joint task group of experts from the IPC and the JEDEC Solid State Technology Association. The task group included representatives from component manufacturers, assembly service providers, equipment suppliers, research institutes, and standards organizations. The task group reviewed and updated the previous version of the standard to reflect the current state of the art and industry practices.
Purpose and objectives of J-STD-002E
The main purpose of J-STD-002E is to provide a standardized and consistent method for testing and evaluating the solderability of electronic components. The objectives of J-STD-002E are to:
Establish common test methods and criteria for assessing solderability.
Provide guidance on how to select appropriate test methods and parameters for different types of components and solder alloys.
Provide defect definitions, acceptance criteria, and illustrations for evaluating solderability.
Address the challenges and issues related to Pb-free soldering and metallization dissolution/dewetting.
Promote the compatibility and interoperability of components and assemblies across the supply chain.
Enhance the quality and reliability of electronic products.
J-STD-002E helps to ensure that electronic components have adequate solderability for their intended applications. It also helps to identify and prevent potential problems or failures related to poor solderability. J- STD- 002E is used by various stakeholders in the electronics industry, such as component manufacturers, assembly service providers, quality assurance personnel, design engineers, reliability engineers, and customers. What are the main features and benefits of J-STD-002E?
J-STD-002E provides a comprehensive and detailed framework for testing and evaluating the solderability of electronic components. It specifies various test methods and criteria that can be applied to different types of components and solder alloys. It also provides guidance on how to select and perform the most suitable test method for a given component or solder alloy.
Test methods and criteria of J-STD-002E
J-STD-002E prescribes four main test methods for assessing solderability:
Wetting balance method: This method measures the wetting force of molten solder on a component terminal or lead as a function of time. It can be used for both leaded and leadless components, and for both Pb and Pb-free solders.
Dip and look method: This method immerses a component terminal or lead in molten solder for a specified time and temperature, and then visually inspects the wetting characteristics. It can be used for both leaded and leadless components, and for both Pb and Pb-free solders.
Solder paste method: This method applies a solder paste to a component terminal or lead, reflows the solder paste in an oven or a vapor phase, and then visually inspects the wetting characteristics. It can be used for surface mount devices (SMDs) and ball grid arrays (BGAs), and for both Pb and Pb-free solders.
Solder ball method: This method applies a solder ball to a component terminal or pad, reflows the solder ball in an oven or a vapor phase, and then visually inspects the wetting characteristics. It can be used for chip scale packages (CSPs) and flip chips, and for both Pb and Pb-free solders.
J-STD-002E also provides defect definitions, acceptance criteria, and illustrations for evaluating solderability. The defect definitions include terms such as non-wetting, dewetting, non-solderable area, pinhole, void, crack, bridge, icicle, etc. The acceptance criteria specify the minimum acceptable percentage of wetted area or wetting angle for different types of components and solder alloys. The illustrations show examples of acceptable and unacceptable solder joints for different types of components and solder alloys.
J-STD-002E also addresses the challenges and issues related to Pb-free soldering and metallization dissolution/dewetting. Pb-free solders have higher melting temperatures, lower wetting forces, higher surface tension, and higher oxidation rates than Pb-based solders. These factors can affect the solderability of electronic components, especially those with thin or fragile metallizations. Metallization dissolution/dewetting is the phenomenon where the molten solder dissolves or detaches from the component metallization, resulting in poor or no wetting. J-STD-002E provides guidance on how to prevent or minimize metallization dissolution/dewetting by controlling the test parameters such as temperature, time, flux type, atmosphere, etc.
Advantages and challenges of J-STD-002E
The advantages of using J-STD-002E for testing solderability are:
It provides a standardized and consistent method for testing and evaluating solderability.
It covers a wide range of electronic components and solder alloys.
It provides clear and objective defect definitions, acceptance criteria, and illustrations for evaluating solderability.
It addresses the challenges and issues related to Pb-free soldering and metallization dissolution/dewetting.
It promotes the compatibility and interoperability of components and assemblies across the supply chain.
It enhances the quality and reliability of electronic products.
The challenges or limitations of using J-STD-002E for testing solderability are:
It requires specialized equipment, materials, skills, and procedures to perform the test methods.
It may not reflect the actual soldering conditions or performance in real-world applications.
It may not cover all possible types of components or solder alloys that may emerge in the future.
It may not account for all possible factors that may affect solderability, such as storage conditions, handling methods, contamination sources, etc.
To overcome or mitigate these challenges or limitations, users should:
Follow the test methods and criteria of J- STD- 002E strictly and accurately.
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